Contents

Extension-less File Challenge: 'watson is sorry'

Challenge Prompt

As stated on the LTDH24 index page, this challenge was purely just to be annoying hence why the challenge prompt was: “pls no h8 me” - Watson. Just play with the magic bits :).

The challenge prompts users to download the following file. The file has a .bits extension because I did discover that MacOS automatically works out the file type if there is no file extension whilst downloading files - which kind of ruins the first hint in the challenge…

Just play with the magic bits

This hint is in reference to file signatures, also referred to as magic numbers or magic bits. These signatures are bits of data contained within a file’s header which are used to help a computer or application to identify the formatting and file type of a file without looking at the file’s extension.

So based on this clue, what should we be thinking…

Embedded Files

One common challenge type might involve files that contain other files hidden within them. These challenges require users to extract the embedded files, often by recognising the magic numbers of different file types within a larger file.

Corrupted Headers

Some challenges may involve files with intentionally corrupted headers. In these cases, users need to repair the header by identifying the correct magic number and adjusting the file so that it can be properly read by the appropriate application.

Hidden File Types

Another common type of challenge involves files that have had their extensions removed or altered. These challenges require users to identify the true file type based on its content rather than its extension. This can be done by examining the file’s magic number using a hex editor/viewer.

This challenge is a hidden file type challenge but let’s work that out from some analysis.

Tools for extension-less files

Binwalk

Binwalk is a powerful tool for analysing binary files. It is commonly used for extracting embedded files and firmware images. By scanning a file, Binwalk can identify known file signatures, making it easier to locate and extract hidden files.

Example Usage: binwalk -e <file>

Strings

The strings command is a simple yet effective tool that searches for and displays printable strings in binary files. This can be useful for identifying human-readable information within a file that might hint at its content or hidden data.

Example Usage: strings <file>

You can also ‘pipe’ the output into a grep query to narrow down the search even more.

Example Usage: strings <file> | grep ltdh{

Strings with Grep Output on our file: N/A - Returns nothing as the ltdh{ query isnt in the strings output.

From strings on a zip file, we can actually see the file names of the files within the zip file, which can be super handy too!

Strings Output on our file:
wtf/PK

wtf/.DS_Store

1nPK

wtf/xcuse-me.png

M#UT)K

0~RWG

&E=>6

:dp$

M[k#

rq?:I??

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wtf/.DS_Store

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File

The file command is used to determine the type of a file based on its content rather than its extension. This tool reads the magic numbers within the file’s header to provide an accurate file type.

Example Usage: file <file>

Output on our file:

magic.bits: Zip archive data, at least v2.0 to extract, compression method=store
Hex Editors

Hex editors allow users to view and edit the raw binary data of a file. By examining the hex values, users can manually identify magic numbers and other important information within a file’s header. There are an endless number of hex editors. Personally I like xxd <file>

Okay, okay we have a zip file what now…

Remember how I said this challenge is annoying, well. The zip file is of course password protected and the intended solution is indeed to bruteforce the password. A couple handy tools for this job are fcrackzip (built into Kali), ZipCrack, or, my personal favourite JohnTheRipper.

In theory, strong passwords are so time consuming to brute force that it’s infeasible to do so. However, users often do not use strong passwords. Enter wordlists and rainbow tables.

Wordlists

Wordlists are precompiled lists of potential passwords, phrases, or keywords used in brute-force attacks or dictionary attacks. They are an essential tool in cybersecurity for testing the strength of passwords and recovering lost passwords. Wordlists can be custom-generated based on specific criteria or obtained from various sources, including leaked databases or security research projects.

One of the most famous password lists is rockyou.txt a password list created from a breach of ‘RockYou’ who stored their user passwords in plaintext on their server. If you’re interested in password encryption and hashing methods check out ASecuritySite’s hashing section.

Targeted wordlists can also be created to target individuals or organisations with tools such as CeWL.

Rainbow Tables

Rainbow tables are precomputed tables used to reverse cryptographic hash functions, primarily for cracking password hashes. Unlike wordlists, which contain plaintext passwords, rainbow tables store hashed values and their corresponding plaintexts, allowing for faster hash reversal.

Let’s have John do the work :)

First convert the Zip File to John the Ripper Format: zip2john magic.zip > protected.hash

Note: whilst setting this up on my mac with brew install john-jumbo I had to manually add /john to path, see here.

Then run John with a password list: john --wordlist=rockyou.txt protected.hash ``

Output:
(base) watson@cynthia Desktop % john --wordlist=rockyou.txt protected.hash

Warning: detected hash type "ZIP", but the string is also recognized as "ZIP-opencl"

Use the "--format=ZIP-opencl" option to force loading these as that type instead

Using default input encoding: UTF-8

Loaded 1 password hash (ZIP, WinZip [PBKDF2-SHA1 128/128 ASIMD 4x])

Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status

qwerty           (magic.zip/wtf/.DS_Store)

1g 0:00:00:00 DONE (2024-05-26 17:42) 5.882g/s 12047p/s 12047c/s 12047C/s 123456..lovers1

Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably

Session completed

And we have our password: qwerty Which just happens to be number 4 Nord’s Most Common Password List in 2021 and early on in the rockyou.txt password list.

What’s inside the singing ke-uhh zip file…

Inside our magic zip is a directory called ‘wtf’ and inside that we have an image called “xcuse-me.png”. Let’s take a look at it…

https://lnwatson.co.uk/files/xcuse-me.png

Hmmm. Well that’s not a flag. But there’s a weird line at the bottom of the photo… Binwalk just shows its a PNG image. So we should try some image stego tools like StegOnline and StegHide.

But before we do that it’s always a safe bet to run the file through strings (or bonus points for strings with grep).

Wow, a flag ⛳️

Let’s try… strings xcuse-me.png | grep ltdh

Output:

(base) watson@cynthia wtf % strings xcuse-me.png | grep ltdh
ltdh{fhat_whe_tuck}

And that’s that, we have now solved the ‘watson-is-sorry’ annoying challenge, BUT hopefully learned or consolidated knowledge of using some common CTF challenge tools.

Click here to go and view the other LTDH'24 CTF challenge write ups :)